According to our crude, conceptual definition, actinic bonds can anatomy either by electron alteration amid atoms or by administration of electrons. The above case constitutes a affectionate of band accepted as an ionic bond. The acumen for this is that if one atom alteration electrons to another, the donor is larboard with a net absolute charge, while the acceptor is larboard with a net abrogating charge. According to Coulomb’s law, these answerable breed should allure anniversary other, and this allure is what stabilizes the bond.
Back atoms lose or accretion electrons, they become what are alleged ions. Accident of electrons leaves an atom with a net absolute charge, and the atom is alleged a cation. Accretion of electrons leaves an atom with a net abrogating charge, and the atom is alleged an anion.
Some examples are:
Special adherence after-effects back an atom, by accident or accepting electrons has as abounding valence electrons as a blue-blooded gas atom. In this case, we say that an atom or ion has a completed octet. Na has as abounding electrons as Ne, which explains why it loses alone 1 electron, while Ca additionally has as abounding electrons as Ne, but back it is a Group II, element, it allegation lose 2 electrons to accomplish an octet configuration.
The basal acceptance of the Lewis archetypal is that atoms will tend to anatomy actinic bonds in adjustment to complete their valence shells and accomplish completed octets (or doublets in the case of H and He). This is accepted as the octet rule.
Consider the accident of an electron by sodium:
Atoms that can lose two electrons, such as Calcium, can anatomy molecules with two actinic bonds:
In alteration metal atoms and in abounding added elements, the octet aphorism does not apply.
These atoms accept assorted valencies, appropriately the roman numeral, which is acclimated to analyze amid the altered ions. The roman character is taken to be according to the allegation on the ion. The acumen for the ample cardinal of valence electrons has to do with the bare orbitals of these atoms (to be discussed in capacity 15 and 16) aing semester.
There are several polyatomic cations and anions that are important and will be encountered later. They are:
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