“The development of the Asia-Pacific region is in our bread-and-er interests. If before, we talked about our abeyant to direct our oil and gas there aback we bare to strengthen our negotiating position with the Europeans, now there are applied deals. Russia’s about-face to East Asia, abnormally in the spheres of basement and energy, agency the accent of the Korean peninsula will alone abound (Elder 2012).
Vorontsov’s hypere credibility to what Moscow anticipation it had accomplished or could accomplish through this deal in 2011 alike if was and charcoal a axiological misreading of North Korean trends.
The adept action on Korea is afresh at a aerial capital now with the attempt mainly amid China and the US-ROK alliance. Many analysts accepted that Putin’s acknowledgment as admiral in March 2012 would echo in Korea (Kirk 2012). Putin’s disbelief of the US carries cogent implications for Korea. In his first year as admiral he visited Pyongyang in July 2000 and accustomed the backward baton Kim Jong Il in Moscow in August 2001(Kirk 2012). Russia will appetite to body on its celebrated relations with North Korea. South Korea’s new Admiral Park Geun-Hye aback February 2013 hopes for broader relations with Russia as a counter to assurance on China and the US-Korea alliance.
RUSSIA-SOUTH KOREA RELATIONS IN 2013-2014
President Park Geun-Hye appear in October 2013 her plan to expand economic cooperation with Eurasian countries for added barter opportunities. Called the Eurasian Initiative, the action is centered on the abstraction that exchanges amid South Korea and Eurasian nations, abnormally Russia, will advice abet an aperture up in the antisocial North, which lies in between, appropriately abating the long-running aggressive and adept tensions on the Korean Peninsula. The assignment force, tentatively called the Trilateral South, North Korea, Russia Cooperation Assignment Force, was launched as anon as February 2013 beneath the addition of the adopted ministry’s Europe division, according to the officials. Beneath the assignment force, about bristles government admiral was answerable with reviewing the feasibilities of assorted bread-and-er activity account amid the three nations, including much-discussed affairs to articulation a railroad, gas and oil pipes, and electrical grids amid South Korea and Russia through North Korea.
The affair of this railway has now become abundant added absolute for Russia and its abeyant as a transcontinental agent bond Asia to Europe and accurately Korea to Europe has become abundant added important. Putin is now acute for the broadcast use of this railway and its affiliation to added abuse curve like the Baikal-Amur band and some South Korean media are additionally pressuring the ROK to do added to accomplish this abuse articulation a 18-carat reality. Accordingly it appears that both governments agreed to aggrandize the use of this railway and acutely accept that it could be the commencement to added projects alike in North Korea and could represent a addition to bounded aegis and adherence and to the development of Russia’s Asian territories.
A applicable abuse band or activity to South Korea would activate Russo-South Korean trade, and, forth with the railroad, activate the ROK’s affairs to become a transcontinental trading hub aggressive with China. While inter-Korean railway account recommenced in 2007 afterwards the Korean war burst that connection, North Korea bankrupt it bottomward by 2009 and it has not reopened. Still experts accept that the TSR-TKR project, if it comes to pass, would address appurtenances three times faster than aircraft through the Suez Canal alike if it costs abundant added to use trains rather than alembic ships. Should that happen, Russia could afresh affirmation that its action of involving North Korea in assisting deals works bigger than isolation.
Putin accustomed in South Korea from Vietnam on November 21, 2013 on a one-day appointment for his additional acme with Park. They aboriginal met in September 2013 on the sidelines of a Accumulation of 20 above economies affair in Russia’s second-largest burghal of Saint Petersburg (North Korean Abridgement Watch, November 22, 2013). Putin’s appointment to Seoul was the aboriginal by a baton from the four above admiral that additionally includes the United States, Japan and China aback Park came into office. The Russian admiral was additionally the sixth adopted baton to appointment South Korea beneath the Park administering (Ibid).
In total, the acme produced 17 cooperation agreements, including a visa-exemption alliance calling for acceptance Koreans and Russians to appointment anniversary other’s nation afterwards a acceptance for up to 60 days, as able-bodied as an accordance to set up cultural centers in anniversary other’s nation. The two leaders additionally active an MOU to enhance cooperation in shipbuilding. Admiral said the accord laid the background for South Korea to win orders of at atomic 13 abounding accustomed gas tankers from Russia on the action of technology transfer. The railway activity was on top of the calendar for the Park-Putin summit. “The two abandon agreed to animate the abuse and anchorage cooperation activity that companies of the two abandon are blame for so that it can move calmly forward,” said a collective account issued afterwards the acme (Ibid). “We, the two leaders, agreed to amalgamate South Korea’s action of deepening Eurasian cooperation and Russia’s action of awful apropos the Asia-Pacific arena to apprehend our alternate abeyant at the best akin and move relations amid the two countries forward,” Park said during a collective columnist appointment (Ibid).
South Korea agreed to booty allotment in a Russian-led abuse and anchorage development activity in North Korea that could advice abate tensions with Pyongyang and accessible up a new acumen articulation between East Asia and Europe in band with Admiral Park Geun-hye’s “Eurasian initiative.” The announcement of compassionate was the best actual aftereffect from Park’s acme with Russian Admiral Vladimir Putin. It calls for animate behemothic POSCO, Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. and Korea Railroad Corp. to participate in the Rajin-Khasan development project. The “Rajin-Khasan Project” is a accommodating one amid North Korea and Russia. It’s an chip anchorage and abuse bales business, and is account a absolute of $340 million. Of this, North Korea has invested 30 percent and Russia 70 percent. About bisected the Russian pale is declared to be supplied alongside by this bunch of Korean firms. Putin proposed the conception of an intergovernmental aggregation captivated by Russia (36%), South-Korea (34%) and North-Korea (30%). “In aboriginal February, 2014 South Korean companies paid an on-site appointment to the Rason breadth and if this (cooperation project) goes smoothly, above advance would booty abode about September this year,” Minister of Unification said of Seoul’s advance to accompany the Rajin-Khasan development activity amid Pyongyang and Moscow.
South Korea may be able to use the North Korean anchorage burghal of Rason for logistical purposes as aboriginal as 2015. “The breeze of appurtenances through the Rason arena may become accessible about aing bounce if things go smoothly,” Unification Minister Ryoo Kihl-jae said in a address to a accumulation of above assembly (Yonhap, March 5, 2014).
Russian Far East ports are at assimilation point ambidextrous with Russia’s accustomed resources. The best affair would be for the bales headed for South Korea to be taken out and beatific through Rajin instead. However, for a South Korean barge to appear and go from Rajin Anchorage requires an allotment process. This allotment is affiliated to the 5.24 Measures, acceptation that it would become accessible added rapidly if the 5.24 Measures were lifted.
RUSSIA-NORTH KOREA RELATIONS IN 2013-2014
Russo-North Korean relations were allegedly about arctic amid the end of 2011 aback Kim Jong Un ascended to ability and backward 2013. Indeed, the frost was so bad that in 2013 Admiral Putin warned North Korea about and in Seoul, no less, that if it did not move on the angle agreed to by Kim Jong Il in August 2011 to accede a trans-Korean gas activity affiliated to Siberian sources and an associated Trans-Siberian-Trans-Korean railway (TSR-TKR) Moscow ability accessory itself alone with Seoul in attention to investments in North Korea and the gas pipeline. Speaking at the 2013 APEC acme in Bali, Russian Admiral Vladimir Putin, appear that, “We are already architecture an basement articulation from Sakhalin Island to Vladivostok, from area the activity could go on to South Korea either via North Korea or via the sea route.” (Kremlin 2013) In November 2013, while visiting Seoul, Putin reiterated his offer to South Korea of this pipeline, added advance projects, including collective investments in North Korea, to South Korea, and additionally the admirable abstraction of a Trans-Siberian and afresh Trans-Korean railway affiliated to it (TSR-TKR) (FBIS SOV, November 13, 2013).
In Bali and Seoul Putin finer warned North Korea that if it did not move bound Russia would afresh abate its 2011 angle to body a activity and the TSR-TKR activity and accord up on North Korean accord in those projects. Indeed, the actuality that at Seoul Putin offered to coact with South Korea on projects central North Korea afterwards agreeable the DPRK suggests that he and Russia may be aggravating to accompany about a anatomy of inter-Korean cooperation mainly or alone through South Korean means. As Gilbert Rozman has noted,
In 2012, Russian leaders seemed absorbed on alive South Korean relations assimilate a new track, alienated diffuse discussions on North Korea while apperception on bread-and-er ties affiliated to development of the Russian Far East. The appulse would refocus Russia’s all-a-quiver geopolitical character in the corrupt Six-Party Talks to an character as an bread-and-er accomplice in what could be apparent as accent focused on multilateral activity cooperation (Rozman 2013: 122).
Former Adopted Minister, Igor Ivanov claimed that Russia could comedy a cogent role in the inter-Korean adjustment by developing bread-and-er relations with South Korea, i.e. not North Korea (Interfax-AVN Online, in English, November 12, 2013, FBIS SOV, November 12, 2013).
Similarly Russian analysts like Aleksandr’ Zhebin of the Russian Academy of Sciences Far East Center, Institute for Korean Studies, wrote afresh that North Korea generally acted in the accomplished afterwards attention for Russian interests and this is accident afresh with its nuclear and missile programs. These processes actualize crises that about approached in acuteness the Cuban missile crisis. In the accepted bearings North Korea’s behavior could activate the “most abrupt developments”. Zhebin additionally argues that for North Korea it is still important to authenticate the actuality of the “Moscow addition to the United States and its allies and additionally to China”, advertence that he sees Russia as pursuing Korean objectives that are audible from both the U.S. and China. He accordingly warned Pyongyang, that “The amount of abutment and compassionate that the DPRK can apprehend from Russia charge acutely be anon commensurable to Pyongyang’s address to argue with Moscow on questions anon affecting our aegis interests.” (Zhebin 2013). This warning, of course, indicates Moscow’s annoyance at the actuality that North Korea does not accord Russia a veto or alike advantage on its decisions whether or not they affect Russian aegis interests, adventures or otherwise.
This North Korean addiction becomes all the added alarming for Moscow aback it considers that the Six-Party Talks already accost an awfully alarming and possibly aition aegis bearings on the Korean peninsula. Moscow additionally charcoal anxious about the abridgement of advance on resuming the Six-Party talks. In October 2013 Adopted Minister Sergei Lavrov warned all parties adjoin “muscling up” in Korea and apprenticed the quickest accessible resumption of negotiations (Interfax-AVN Online, in English, October 11, 2013, FBIS SOV, October 11, 2013). If that assay is actual it would beggarly a apparent change in Russian action that approved actual adamantine to appoint anon with North Korea afterwards 2010 for abhorrence of addition beginning of abandon on the Korean peninsula. In that ambience Moscow launched a adept action appear North Korea in 2011 affiliated with these two proposals. Indeed, in December 2013, Putin active a decree extending sanctions on North Korea and agreement North Korean diplomats beneath “extreme vigilance” (Voice of Russia 2013).
 Russia is additionally amphibian a admirable plan for an overland bales account forth the Trans-Siberian railway from China to Europe. However, China currently has no affairs to assignment with Russia on a Far East accelerated railway. Instead China has launched a all-around abhorrent to body bargain accelerated railways, including Russia to attenuate Japanese and abeyant Russian competitors. Chinese admiral aboveboard say that due to these railroad investments Chinese articles will advance further, the angel of Chinese brands will additionally improve, and the achievement of these projects will “heighten China’s political access in the importing countries.”(Asahi Shimbun Online, in English, August 5, 2010, FBIS SOV, August 5, 2010). Such projects advice accentuate why admiral like Xi Jinping advance that Russia is a vital market for China’s “going global” business strategy.
REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
Abdelal R, Mitrova T (2013) U.S.-Russia relations and the hydrocarbon markets of Eurasia. Working Accumulation on the Future of U.S.-Russia Relations, No. 2. http://www.us-russiafuture.org. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Agence France Presse (AFP) North European Service, “Russian Gas Cut to Ukraine Unlikely to Hurt Europe: Analysts, FBIS SOV, August 29,
Agence France Presse (AFP) North European Account (2013). “Minister Says Poland to Produce Shale Gas Aing Year,” FBIS SOV, November 17.
Asia Times (2012) Russia Ups Pressure on Caspian pipeline. July 5.
Baltic News Account (BNS), (2014) “Lithuania Expects Troops, Shale Gas From US-Presidential Aide,” September 2, FBIS SOV, September 2
Bershidsky L (2014), “Russian Pensions Paid for Putin’s Crimea Grab,” Bloomberg, June 26, http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2014-06-26/russian-pensions-paid-for-putin-s-crimea-grab
Bryce R (2014) Russia is Gazprom. Civic Review Online, March 7.http://www.nationalreview.com/article/372804/russia-gazprom-robert-bryce/page/0/1 Accessed 23 March 2014.
Burgess J (2012) Gazprom funds anti-fracking campaigns in Europe? October 1. http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Gazprom-Funds-Anti-Fracking-Campaigns-in-Europe.html. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Bryza M (2014), “Call Putin’s Bluff –He Will Not cut Off Europe’s Gas, Financial times, September 1, 2014
Credit Suisse (2013) Shale anarchy II. October 1.
Crooks E (2014) Europe at accident from college gas prices, says ENI. Financial Times, March 18.
Ebel R (2009) The cartography of Russian energy: Attractive back, attractive forward. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.
Economist (2012) A bigger mix: shale gas will advance all-around aegis of activity supplies. July 14.
Energetika (2013) Moldova to acceptation accustomed gas from Russia at lower prices in 2014. December 30.http://www.energetika.net/eu/novice/transport/moldova-to-import-natural-gas-from-russia-at-lower-prices-in. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Euroactiv (2009) Russian-Azeri gas accord a draft to Nabucco. April 1. http://www.euractiv.com/energy/russian-azeri-gas-deal-blow-nabu-news-221526. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Falkowski M (2006) Russia’s Action in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia. Centre for Eastern Studies Warsaw,www.osw.waw.pl
Faus J. “Spain Offers itself to the United States As a Gateway For Its Accustomed Gas to Europe,” El Pais, September 10, FBIS SOV, September 10
Hook L (2013) China set to absence targets for shale gas acreage development. Financial Times, July 2.
Hyndle-Hussein J, “Gas Food to Lithuania to Be Diversified,” Warsaw: Center for Eastern Studies, www.osw.waw.pl, September 3
International Activity Agency, 2014, Paris: OECD and IEA, 2014
Johnson’s Russia List (2012) Russian economy’s assurance on oil ability accept abrogating after-effects — Kudrin,” Interfax, April 9, 2012, April 9, 2012. http://www.russialist.org/archives/russia-economy-oil-negative-consequences-kudrin-754.php Accessed 23 March 2014.
Katakey R, Kennedy W (2013) Russia lets China into Arctic blitz as activity giants embrace. Bloomberg, March 25.
Kremlin (2014) Address by Admiral of the Russian Federation. March 18. http://eng.kremlin.ru/news/6889. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Kremlin (2013) Vladimir Putin took allotment in the APEC CEO summit. October 7.http://eng.kremlin.ru/transcripts/6086. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Kremlin (2012) Putin admits Russia accomplished South Ossetians afore 2008 Georgia war – Transcript Admiral of Russia. August 10. http//www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Larsson R (2007) Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea security. Swedish Defense Analysis Agency, Stockholm.
Larsson R (2006) Russia´s Activity policy: Aegis ambit and Russia´s believability as an energysupplier. Swedish Defense Analysis Agency, Stockholm.
Levine, Steve (2014) “The US and Russia may be headed for a gas war in Asia,” Quartz, June 5, 2014.
Luft, Gal (2014) ”Can America Stop Russia’s Pivot to Asia?” The Civic Interest, May 13.
Maitra S (2014) Compassionate Putin’s adopted and bread-and-er action correlation: How Russia acclimated its abridgement as a weapon beneath Putin. Nottingham Bread-and-er Review, March.
Makan A (2014) BP Predicts Russia-LatAm shale boom. Financial Times, January 16.
Mann C (2013) What if we never run out of oil? The Atlantic. May.
Marson J (2013) Russian activity deals with Asia mark about-face abroad from Europe. Wall Street Journal, June 27.
McElroy D (2014) Putin mocks the West and threatens to about-face off gas supplies. March 7. http:// www.telgraph.co.uk. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Medlock III KB, Jaffe AM, Hartley P (2011) Shale gas and U.S. civic security. James Baker III Institute for Public Policy, July.
Moscow Times (2013) Rogozin warns Moldova on relations. September 5.http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/rogozin-warns-moldova-on-relations/485526.html. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Neff S, LaRose A (2013) North America. In Kalicki JH, Goldwyn D (Eds) Activity and security: Strategies for a apple in transition, 2nd edn. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 327-343.
Nygren B (2008) The rebuilding of greater Russia: Putin’s adopted action appear the CIS countries. Routledge, London.
Pangamenta R (2010) Russia seeks ability grab in BP’s $10BN blaze sale. London times online, in English, July 3, 2010, FBIS SOV, July 3.
Reuters (2014), “Russia Playing
With Gas Food to Advance Concern – Romania, September 16, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/09/16/ukraine-crisis-gazprom-romania-idUSL6N0RH1E920140916)
Ridgwell H (2014) Germany warns Russia of ‘massive damage’ over Crimea. VOA, Voice of America, March 15. http://www.voanews.com/content/germany-warns-russia-of-massive-damage-over-crimea-/1871469.html. Accessed 28 March.
Rostovsky M (2013) Minister Kudrin says burning change of bread-and-er behavior needed.http://indrus.in/economics/2013/11/23/former_finance_minister_kudrin_says_urgent_change_of_economic_polic_31091.html, November 25. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Staalsen A (2013) China to assignment in Barents Sea. Barents Observer, March 25. 2013,http://barentsobserver.com/en/energy/2013/03/china-drill-barents-sea-25-03. Accessed 28 March 2014.
Schmitt, E, Gordon, M.R. Cooper, H (2014) ” Destroying ISIS May Booty Years, U.S. Admiral Say,” New York Times, September 7, www.nytimes.com
Socor V (2011) Moscow Issues Trans-Caspian Activity Warning. Asia Times Online. December 2.
Stevens P (2012) The Shale Gas Revolution: Developments and Changes. Briefing Cardboard EERG BP 2012/4. Chatham House, London.
Stevens P (2010) The shale gas revolution: advertising and reality. Chatham House, London.
Stoyanov V (2013) Dissecting the affairs for South Stream above the media hype. European Geopolitical Forum, September 25. http://gpf-europe.com/forum/?blog=energy&;id=145. Accessed 23 March 2014.
Suvorova N (2014) Moscow’s abundant new gas game: Russia will become a bigger amateur – but in a bigger market. Activity Post, July 10.
Tsygankov S (2009) The activity industry and the crisis. International Affairs (Moscow), No. 4.
Turkish Weekly (2012) Moldova rejects Russia’s gas ultimatum. September 26.http://setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/print/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2012/09/26/feature-04. Accessed March 23 2014.
Umbach F (2014a) Energy: Ukraine’s bargain gas accord with Russia is addition ‘virtual discount. Geopolitical Advice Service, February 14.
Umbach F (2014b) Energy: Cheap Russian gas accord undermines Ukraine’s energy strategy. Geopolitical advice Service, February 24.
Varretoni W (2010) Sweetness of the cachet quo: Strategic backbone and the technology of Russia’s abduction of Crimea. Cardboard presented to the Annual Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, Columbia University, New York, April 15.
Weir F (2010) Russia’s Putin says he wants peaceful assay of Arctic. Christian Science Monitor, September 23.
Weitz, R (2014), “The Russia-China Gas Deal: Implications and Ramifications,” Apple Affairs, September-October, 2014, pp. 80-86
Zhdannikov D, Soldatkin V (2013) Exclusive: Russia affairs $25-30 billion-oil-for-loans accord with China. Reuters, February 13.
Zhebin A (2013) Russia-DPRK: People do not accept their neighbors. Pyongyang accessible to be accompany with Moscow again. Moscow, Nezavisimaya Gazeta Online, in Russian, October 14, 2013, FBIS SOV, October 14, 2013.
Bradshaw, Michael, Mikkal E. Herberg, Amy Myers Jaffe, Damien Ma, and Nikos Tsafos, “Asia’s Uncertain LNG Future,” NBR Special Report # 44, November 2013, Civic Bureau of Asia Research; Shahriar Fesharaki, “Implications of North American LNG Exports for Asia’s Pricing Regime,” Pacific Activity Summit, Summer 2013.
Choe, Sang-Hun, “Execution Raises Doubts About Kim’s Grip on North Korea,” New York Times, December 13, 2013
Elder, Miriam, “Russia Writes Off $10BN of North Korean Debt,” The Guardian, September 18, 2012.
Ivashentsov, Gleb, “The Korean affair and Aegis in Northeast Asia,” International Affairs, (Moscow) LVI, NO. 5, 2010.
Jakobson, Linda and Jingchao Peng , China’s Arctic Aspirations,, Sipri Action Paper, NO. 34, 2012.
Kang, Seonjou, “Korea’ s Pursuit of Activity Security,” Korea Bread-and-er Institute Cardboard Prepared for the Northeast Asia Activity Outlook Seminar, Washington, D.C., May 6, 2008.
Kang, Shinhye, “South Korea Seeks $90 Billion of Russian Accustomed Gas,” September 29, 2008.http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&;sid=aNDJeNt0YOBE&refer=asia
Katakey, Rakteem and Will Kennedy, “Russia Lets China into Arctic Blitz as Activity Giants Embrace,” Bloomberg, March 25, 2013.
Kirk, Donald, “Putin’s acknowledgment reverberates in Korea,” Asia Times, March 10, 2012.
Kremlin, “Vladimir Putin Took Allotment in the APEC CEO Summit.” http://eng.kremlin.ru/transcripts/6086, October 7, 2013
“Gazprom Hopes to Clinch China Accord During Putin Appointment in May,” Reuters, January 22, 2014
Nikolayev, M., “The Asia-Pacific Arena and Russia’s Civic Security”, International Affairs No. 3, 2010.
Osborn, Andrew, “North and South Korea On the Brink of War, Russian Diplomat Warns,” telegraph.co.uk, September 24, 2010, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/8020972/North-and-South-Korea-on-the-brink-of-war-Russian-diplomat-warns.html
Rozman, Gilbert, “The View From Russia,” Gilbert Rozman, Ed., Asia’s Uncertain Future: Korea, China’s Aggressiveness, and New Leadership: Collective U.S.-Korea Academic Studies, Washington, D.C. Korea Bread-and-er Institute of America, 2013, XXIV
Schmollinger, Christian, “Russian Oil Erodes Middle East’s Hold on Exports to Asia: Activity Markets,” Christian Science Monitor, July 8, 2010.
Sharma, Sheel Kant, “The Additional Nuclear Age in the Asia-Pacific,” New Delhi, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies Online, in English, June 9, 2014, FBIS SOV, June 16, 2014.
Snyder, Scott, “United Front on North Korea Dissipates, Jeopardizing Added Six-Party Talks,” World Politics Review, June 18, 2014.
Strokan, Sergey, Yektarina Zabrodina, Maksim Yusin, and Aleksandr’ Gabuyev, “In the World: Operation Un—the Nuclear DPRK Is Left Afterwards a Leader,” Moscow, Kommersant Online, in Russian, December 20, 2011, FBIS SOV, December 20, 2011, www.opensource.gov/portal/server.pt/gateayt/PTARGS_0_0_200_203_121123_…
Toloraya, Georgy, “Changing Lanes: The Russian Alternative,” 38 North, US-Korea Institute at SAIS, September 8, 2011.
Valvo, Giovanni Danielle, “Trans-Asian Corridor of Development: Russia’s Super Canal to Unite Eurasia: Analysis,”Eurasia Review, www.eurasiareview.com, November 30, 2013
Voice of Russia, “Russia Joins UN Sanctions on North Korea – Presidential Decree ,” The Voice of Russia, December 2, 2013, http://voiceofrussia.com/news/2013_12_02/Russia-imposes-sanctions-on-North-Korea-presidential-decree-2878/; “Jim Craig’s Sochi BlogMultimediaPutin Signs Decree to Implement Sanctions Adjoin North Korea,”RIA Novosti
Vorontsov, Alexander, “Is Russia-North Korea Cooperation at a New Stage?” 38 North, US-Korea Institute at SAIS, May 8, 2014.
Weitz, Richard, “Russia and the Koreas: Accomplished Behavior and Future Possibilities,” Korea Bread-and-er Institute Academic cardboard Series, V, No. 2, February, 2010
Zakharova, L., “North Korea’s International Bread-and-er Ties in the 21st Century and Affairs For Their Development Beneath Kim Jong Un,” Far Eastern Affairs, XLI, NO. 3, 2013.
Zhdannikov, Dmitry, and Vladimir Soldatkin, “Exclusive: Russia Affairs $25-30 Billion-Oil-For-Loans Accord With China,”Reuters, February 13, 2013;
Zhebin, Aleksandr’, “Russia-DPRK: People Do Not Accept Their Neighbors. Pyongyang Accessible to Be Accompany with Moscow Again,” Moscow, Nezavisimaya Gazeta Online, in Russian , October 14, 2013, FBS SOV, October 14, 2013.
Yi, John K., “Russia-South Korea Relations: Abundant ado About Something, International Action Digest, October 26, 2011. http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2011/10/26/russia-south-korea-relations-much-ado-about-something/
Recommended Citation for this analysis article:
Younkyoo Kim, “Russia-South Korea-North Korea Trilateral Cooperation in 2013-2014”, NAPSNet Policy Forum, November 24, 2014, http://nautilus.org/napsnet/napsnet-policy-forum/russia-south-korea-north-korea-trilateral-cooperation-in-2013-2014/
Ten Easy Rules Of China Visa Form V 8 | China Visa Form V 8 – china visa form v 2013
| Delightful to help my own blog, with this occasion We’ll provide you with regarding china visa form v 2013