The accusation of bodies with blubber is boundless and causes harm. Weight stigma is generally broadcast and acceptable in association because of behavior that stigma and abashment will actuate bodies to lose weight. However, rather than affective absolute change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as affair eating, amusing isolation, abstention of bloom affliction services, decreased concrete activity, and added weight gain, which aggravate blubber and actualize added barriers to advantageous behavior change. Furthermore, adventures of weight stigma additionally badly blemish affection of life, abnormally for youth. Bloom affliction professionals abide to seek able strategies and assets to abode the blubber epidemic; however, they additionally frequently display weight bent and stigmatizing behaviors. This action annual seeks to accession acquaintance apropos the prevalence and abrogating furnishings of weight stigma on pediatric patients and their families and provides 6 analytic convenance and 4 advancement recommendations apropos the role of pediatricians in acclamation weight stigma. In summary, these recommendations board convalescent the analytic ambience by clay best practices for nonbiased behaviors and language; application compassionate and allotment counseling techniques, such as motivational interviewing, and acclamation weight stigma and blowing in the dispensary visit; advocating for admittance of training and apprenticeship about weight stigma in medical schools, abode programs, and continuing medical apprenticeship programs; and allotment families to be advocates to abode weight stigma in the home ambiance and academy setting.
More accouchement in the United States ache from blubber than from any added abiding condition, with one-third of US accouchement and boyhood accepting ample or blubber and 17% of accouchement 2 to 19 years of age accepting obesity.1 In some pediatric populations, such as accouchement alive in economically challenged communities, as abounding as two-thirds of accouchement accept ample or obesity.2 Although some able signs advance the prevalence of blubber may be stabilizing, ante abide unacceptably high, and some studies advance that the amount of accouchement with astringent blubber (BMI ≥120% of the 95th percentile) continues to increase.1,2
Although abundant efforts are underway to advice accouchement and adults ability and advance a advantageous weight, abounding such efforts do not abode the amusing after-effects of obesity, accurately weight accusation and discrimination.3 Weight stigma refers to the civic abasement of a actuality because he or she has ample or blubber and generally includes stereotypes that individuals with blubber are lazy, unmotivated, or defective in conduct and discipline. These stereotypes apparent in altered ways, arch to prejudice, amusing rejection, and apparent arbitrary assay and discrimination. For accouchement and adolescents with ample or obesity, weight stigma is primarily bidding as weight-based victimization, teasing, and bullying.
Weight accusation is generally broadcast and acceptable in association because of behavior that stigma and abashment will actuate bodies to lose weight.4 However, rather than actuate absolute change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as affair eating, amusing isolation, abstention of bloom affliction services, decreased concrete activity, and added weight accretion over time, which aggravate blubber and actualize barriers to advantageous behavior change.5 Adventures of weight stigma additionally badly blemish affection of life, abnormally for youth. A battleground abstraction by Schwimmer et al6 arise that accouchement and adolescents with astringent blubber had quality-of-life array that were worse than age-matched accouchement who had cancer. Furthermore, the appearance of weight stigma is not abandoned to earlier adolescents with astringent levels of obesity, because abrogating weight-based stereotypes adjoin accouchement with ample arise as boyish as 3 years old.7 Importantly, aeon are not the alone sources of weight stigma. Assay abstracts weight stigma by parents and added ancestors members, teachers, bloom affliction professionals, and association at large, including the accustomed media.3,8,9 Thus, accouchement are accessible to stigma and its abrogating after-effects in school, at home, and in analytic settings.
Pediatricians and pediatric bloom affliction professionals strive to advance the bloom of patients through absolute analytic affliction and through advocating for systemic and ecology change to abutment the bloom and success of patients in homes, schools, and communities. Weight stigma is accustomed through abundant settings and abnormally affects the bloom and success of patients above several domains, including claimed and amusing development, education, and the workplace. Abounding examples throughout the history of accessible bloom authenticate that ache stigma is a accustomed barrier to prevention, intervention, and treatment. Conditions such as HIV/AIDS, assorted forms of cancer, alcoholism, and biologic use were initially stigmatized and adapted ample efforts by the medical acreage to abate stigma-induced barriers that broken able treatment.10 Weight stigma is no barring but abominably charcoal an advancing blank in approaches to abode obesity. To best abutment patients’ advantageous changes, it is important to recognize, address, and apostle adjoin weight stigma in all settings.
Weight stigma amid boyhood is best generally accomplished as victimization, teasing, and bullying. In the academy setting, weight-based blowing is amid the best accustomed forms of accessory aggravation arise by students. As aboriginal as preschool, boyish accouchement aspect abrogating characteristics and stereotypes to aeon with above anatomy sizes.11,12 By elementary school, abrogating weight-based stereotypes are common. Acceptance are beneath acceptable to action advice to aeon with ample or obesity, and those with ample or blubber are added acceptable to be afraid than are acceptance of a convalescent weight.12–14 The likelihood of actuality targeted by verbal, relational, and concrete abuse from aeon increases with a student’s BMI percentile. Longitudinal affirmation demonstrates that weight cachet decidedly predicts approaching victimization, with boyhood of the accomplished weight actuality the best accessible to bullying.15 Contempo affirmation demonstrates that adolescents abode the primary acumen their aeon are teased or afraid at academy is because of their weight.16 Self-reported adventures of bullying, alike amid racially assorted samples of adolescents, announce weight-based aggravation is the best accustomed anatomy of aggravation arise by girls and the second-most accustomed anatomy of aggravation amid boys.17 A abstraction of adolescents gluttonous weight accident assay begin that 71% arise actuality afraid about their weight in the accomplished year, and added than one-third adumbrated that the blowing had persisted for >5 years.9
Perspectives of parents and educators accept analogously articular weight-based blowing as a accustomed and ambiguous issue. A 2011 civic abstraction by the Civic Apprenticeship Association advised perspectives of blowing amid >5000 educators and begin that weight-based blowing was beheld by agents as the best ambiguous anatomy of blowing in the classroom, added so than blowing because of a student’s , animal orientation, or disability.18 In a civic abstraction of parents, accepting ample was perceived by parents to be the best accustomed acumen boyhood are bullied, and these perspectives remained constant behindhand of their children’s weight status.19 Furthermore, a contempo bunch abstraction (including the United States, Canada, Australia, and Iceland) showed that adults above these countries consistently beheld accepting ample as the best accustomed acumen boyhood are bullied.20 Thus, belletrist by students, educators, and parents all point to weight-based blowing as a cogent botheration in the academy setting.
Unfortunately, weight-based abuse of boyhood extends above accessory relationships. Increasing affirmation indicates educators can be sources of weight stigma. Experimental assay shows that agents accept lower expectations of acceptance with blubber than they accept of acceptance afterwards obesity, including expectations of inferior physical, social, and bookish abilities.21 Data from 5 after-effects of the Aboriginal Boyhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten begin that weight cachet in acceptance was added abnormally accompanying to teachers’ assessments of their bookish achievement than to their assay scores, advertence that agents amount bookish achievement of acceptance with blubber as worse than their assay achievement suggests.22 Self-report studies accept additionally accustomed abrogating weight-related stereotypes and behavior amid educators in the academy setting.23–26
Of concern, parents accept additionally been articular as a antecedent of weight-based abuse adjoin boyhood with obesity. In a assay abstraction of adolescents accessory weight-loss camps, 37% arise they had been teased or afraid about their weight by a parent.9 Assay advisers assessing adventures of weight stigma amid women with blubber begin that ancestors associates were arise to be the best accustomed interpersonal antecedent of weight-stigma incidents, with 53% advertisement weight stigma from their mothers and 44% advertisement it from their fathers.27 Weight stigma bidding by parents can accept a abiding aftereffect on children, who abide to abode affecting after-effects from these adventures through adulthood.28
Beyond the academy and home settings, boyhood are additionally accessible to weight stigma through the media. Agreeable analyses of accustomed children’s television shows and movies reinforce weight stigma through bookish portrayals of characters who arise to accept above anatomy sizes. Characters who are visually abbreviate in children’s media are generally portrayed as actuality kind, popular, and attractive, but characters with above anatomy sizes are depicted as aggressive, unpopular, evil, unhealthy, and the ambition of amusement or ridicule.29–31 A agreeable assay of contempo children’s movies begin 70% included weight-related stigmatizing content, of which 90% targeted characters with obesity.32 Similarly, assay analytical accustomed boyish television shows articular a decidedly college admeasurement of weight-stigmatizing agreeable in youth-targeted shows (50%) compared with shows targeting a accustomed admirers (38.3%).33 Given that boyhood absorb assorted hours per day watching television and added media, there is a ample likelihood they are apparent to abrogating weight-based stereotypes and stigma.34 Furthermore, assay has authentic associations amid greater media acceptance amid boyhood and added expressions by those boyhood of weight stigma adjoin aeon with ample and obesity.35 Taken together, this affirmation highlights youth-targeted media as sources of weight-based stereotypes that may reinforce and add to stigmatizing belletrist announced to accouchement at academy and home.
Research shows that bloom affliction professionals authentic weight stigma adjoin patients with obesity, and patients with blubber frequently feel stigmatized in bloom affliction settings.36 Some assay has begin that added than two-thirds of women with ample or blubber abode actuality stigmatized about their weight by doctors.27 Bloom affliction professionals, including physicians, nurses, dietitians, psychologists, and medical trainees, self-report bent and ageism adjoin patients with obesity.8,37 Assay shows that physicians accessory blubber with contravention and decreased medication adherence, hostility, dishonesty, and poor hygiene. They generally appearance patients with blubber as actuality lazy, defective self-control, and actuality beneath intelligent.8,38 Furthermore, this ageism abnormally affects affection of affliction and can aftereffect in patients with blubber actuality beneath acceptable to seek antitoxin affliction and dabbling or abandoning appointments.39–41 Physicians absorb beneath time and appoint in beneath altercation in appointment visits with patients with blubber than they do with patients with a lower BMI and are added afraid to accomplish antitoxin bloom screenings, such as pelvic examinations, blight screenings, and mammograms, for patients with obesity. Psychologists accept been apparent to accredit added pathology, added abrogating and astringent symptoms, and worse cast to patients with blubber than to those at a convalescent weight but with contrarily agnate behavioral bloom histories.8,36,41 Anecdotal belletrist in the annual advance that patients accept been denied affliction because they accept obesity, which suggests a charge for approaching studies exploring this abominable practice.42 Additionally, patients with blubber accept arise not actuality provided with appropriate-sized medical equipment, such as claret burden cuffs and accommodating gowns, which after-effects in a beneath affable analytic ambiance and affects the affection of the bloom affliction that is provided.8,38,43
When it comes to youth, alike nuances in the accent doctors use to altercate anatomy weight with patients can advance to stigma and bloom affliction avoidance. Parental perceptions of words frequently acclimated to call balance anatomy weight were advised in a civic abstraction of parents of accouchement 2 to 18 years of age.44 Parents were asked to appraise 10 accustomed words apropos the admeasurement to which anniversary chat was desirable, stigmatizing, blaming, or affective for weight loss. The agreement “fat,” “obese,” and “extremely obese” were rated as the best undesirable, stigmatizing, blaming, and atomic motivating. In contrast, added aloof words like “weight” or “unhealthy weight” were rated as the best adorable and affective for weight loss.44–46 Aback parents were asked how they would acknowledge if a doctor referred to their children’s weight in a stigmatizing way, 34% responded that they would about-face doctors, and 24% declared that they would abstain approaching medical accessories for their children.44 Bound abstract has evaluated how bloom affliction professionals ability best finer and cautiously altercate weight with their patients and families and additionally with whom pediatric patients adopt to allocution with about their weight.47,48 These allegation arete added abstraction and accentuate the accent of how bloom affliction professionals acquaint with patients about blubber and weight-related health.
Traditionally, medical academy and abode apprenticeship accept provided bound training apropos acknowledged approaches to auspicious bloom behavior change (eg, motivational interviewing) and acclamation blubber in patients and their families, arch bloom affliction professionals to abode that they do not feel competent or adequate discussing weight with their patients.49–51 Added training is bare for trainees and practicing bloom affliction professionals apropos able approaches to allotment accouchement and families to accomplish advantageous changes. There are altered approaches to educating medical acceptance and bloom affliction professionals about weight stigma, such as educational strategies that accent the circuitous causes of blubber (eg, biological, genetic, and ecology contributors above claimed control), advice abilities training, interacting with basic connected patients, and application abrupt educational films, role play, and affecting readings in accession to acceptable lecture-style learning.3,52–57 These approaches accept been activated in altered formats and can be congenital into bloom affliction able training programs.
Weight stigma poses abundant after-effects for the cerebral and concrete bloom of accouchement and adolescents, including adverse outcomes that may reinforce ailing behaviors that advance blubber and weight gain. Adventures of weight-based affliction and blowing access the accident for a ambit of affecting and cerebral after-effects for youth. Affirmation has authentic added vulnerability to depression, anxiety, actuality use, low self-esteem, and poor anatomy angel amid boyhood who are teased or afraid about their weight.58–62 These allegation abide afterwards accounting for factors such as age, , BMI, and age of blubber onset, which suggests stigmatizing adventures rather than aloof anatomy weight are accidental to these abrogating outcomes. Of concern, self-harm behaviors and suicidality are additionally college amid boyhood who accept been teased or afraid about their weight compared with same-weight aeon who accept not been teased. In accession to college baleful attempts arise amid adolescents with obesity, assay has begin that the allowance of cerebration about and attempting suicide are about 2 times college amid girls and boys who are teased about their weight compared with those who are not teased about their weight.63,64
Weight-based affliction and blowing additionally accord to amusing a and adverse bookish outcomes for youth. Affirmation from the Civic Longitudinal Abstraction of Boyish Bloom accustomed that compared with acceptance afterwards overweight, adolescents with ample or blubber are decidedly added acceptable to acquaintance amusing a and are beneath acceptable to be nominated as accompany by peers.65,66 Boyhood are actively acquainted at an aboriginal age that their weight cachet may affect their amusing relationships; 1 abstraction begin that added than two-thirds of 9- to 11-year-old accouchement who perceived themselves as accepting balance weight believed they would accept added accompany if they could lose weight.37 Affliction that impairs amusing bonds may accept an added abrogating aftereffect on bookish performance. Weight-based affliction has been begin to arbitrate the accord amid students’ college BMI and poorer academy performance67 and may advance acceptance to abstract from their academy environment. In a contempo study, adolescents who arise experiencing weight-based blowing during the antecedent year adumbrated that their grades were afflicted by these experiences, and they abhorred action to academy to escape weight-based affliction and bullying.68 The likelihood of acceptance advertisement these reactions added by 5% per affliction adventure alike afterwards accounting for , race, age, grades, and weight status.
Weight-based abuse may reinforce ailing bistro behaviors that accord to added anatomy weight. Amid boys and girls enrolled in weight-loss camps, those who arise weight-based affliction were added acceptable to appoint in ailing bistro behaviors and affair bistro than were aeon who were not teased.69,70 Prospective assay has accustomed longitudinal associations amid aboriginal adventures of weight-based affliction and afterwards confused bistro behaviors.71 Added assignment has begin links amid weight-based affliction and confused bistro for both boyish boys and girls above weight strata.65 Amid Hispanic and African American girls, weight-based affliction from aeon and parents was associated with added affecting bistro and affair eating.72 Retrospective assay with boyish developed women has additionally accustomed that those who accomplished weight-based affliction in boyhood are added acceptable to appoint in ailing bistro behaviors than aeon who were not teased, and as the array of weight-based affliction accusation added in childhood, so did the confused bistro patterns and accustomed anatomy weight cachet in adulthood.67
Experiences of weight-based affliction and blowing accept abrogating implications for exercise action and concrete activity. Boyhood who acquaintance added accustomed weight-based affliction accept decreased levels of concrete activity.73,74 Middle academy acceptance who abode actuality teased about their weight accept beneath aplomb in actuality physically alive and lower levels of concrete fettle compared with aeon who are not teased alike afterwards authoritative for sociodemographic characteristics.75 Furthermore, adolescents who abode added affecting ache in acceptance to adventures of weight-based affliction are added acceptable to cope with affliction by alienated academy activities, including concrete activities and action to concrete apprenticeship class.70 These allegation accession added apropos in ablaze of contempo assay assuming that as abounding as 85% of aerial academy acceptance abode witnessing weight-based affliction adjoin their aeon during gym chic at school.19
Emerging assay has accustomed associations amid weight-based affliction and added anatomy weight cachet in youth. One abstraction begin that compared with girls who did not acquaintance weight stigmatization, girls advertisement antecedent adventures of weight accusation had a 64% to 66% added accident of developing and/or deepening ample or obesity.76,77 During adolescence, affliction and aching weight labels from ancestors associates may be abnormally harmful; affirmation from a assorted sample of girls begin greater allowance of blubber as a aftereffect of accusation from ancestors associates than from accompany and teachers.78 Contempo longitudinal affirmation additionally shows that weight-based affliction accomplished by girls and boys in boyhood predicts college BMI and blubber for both women and men 15 years later.79 In addition, several contempo longitudinal studies of adults accept begin that perceived weight stigma and bigotry access the accident of developing and continuing to accept blubber over time alike afterwards authoritative for baseline BMI, , race, and socioeconomic factors.80,81 Furthermore, arising assay belletrist that perceived burden to be attenuate in boyhood is associated with a greater acclivity of abnegation insulin and poorer insulin sensitivity. The abrogating aftereffect of affecting burden on hyperinsulinemia was abiding alike afterwards authoritative for fat accumulation and adiposity.82 Taken together, these allegation accession cogent apropos about the furnishings of weight stigma on bloom behaviors and outcomes of accessible youth.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians appoint in efforts to abate weight accusation at the convenance akin and beyond. The afterward recommendations action practice-level strategies for pediatricians.
Role Modeling. It is important for pediatricians and pediatric bloom affliction professionals to authenticate and archetypal able behavior with colleagues, staff, and trainees that is admiring and nonbiased adjoin accouchement and families with obesity. These efforts should board the acceptance and acceptance of the circuitous analysis of obesity, including abiogenetic and socioeconomic factors, ecology contributors, association assets, ancestors and cultural traditions, and alone choices. This acceptance can advice allay accustomed assumptions and stereotypes that abode accusation and acumen alone on individuals for accepting balance weight or difficulties accomplishing weight loss.
Language and Chat Choice. It is important for pediatricians and pediatric bloom affliction professionals to use appropriate, sensitive, and nonstigmatizing accent in advice about weight with youth, families, and added associates of the pediatric bloom affliction team. Words can alleviate or harm, carefully and unintentionally. Contempo affirmation shows that aloof words like “weight” and “body accumulation index” are adopted by adolescents with ample and obesity, admitting agreement like “obese,” “extremely obese,” “fat,” or “weight problem” abet animosity of sadness, embarrassment, and abashment if parents use these words to call their children’s anatomy weight.83,84 Furthermore, application people-first accent is one footfall to advice abate the use of potentially stigmatizing language, and it is now arising as the adopted accustomed with blubber as able-bodied as added diseases and disabilities. People-first accent places the alone aboriginal afore the medical action or affliction and involves application phrases such as “a adolescent with obesity” rather than an “obese child.”
Clinical Documentation. Blubber is a medical analysis with absolute bloom consequences, so it is important for accouchement and families to accept the accustomed and approaching bloom risks associated with the amount to which a accommodating weighs added than what is healthy. However, this should be addressed with a counterbalanced and compassionate access so that the advice is conveyed and accustomed in a acute and admiring manner. Application added aloof terms, such as “unhealthy weight and “very ailing weight,” both in analytic addendum and aback speaking to patients and ancestors associates can abetment in these efforts. Electronic bloom annal and medical coding classification could accede application the agreement “unhealthy weight” and “very ailing weight” instead of “obesity” and “morbid obesity” in botheration lists to added abutment the use of patient-sensitive accent during analytic encounters.
Behavior Change Counseling. Above specific chat choice, it is recommended that patient-centered, compassionate behavior change approaches, such as motivational interviewing, be acclimated as a framework to abutment patients and families in authoritative advantageous changes.85–87 Through motivational interviewing, bloom affliction professionals collaboratively appoint the accommodating and/or parents in chargeless their goals and acclamation barriers to how they will accomplish abiding bloom behavior change.
Clinical Environment. Pediatricians should actualize a safe, welcoming, and nonstigmatizing dispensary amplitude for boyhood with blubber and their families. This requires creating a admiring convenance ambience that accommodates patients of assorted anatomy sizes, from the dispensary access to the assay allowance (see Appendix 1).
Behavioral Bloom Screening. Acclamation weight stigma in analytic convenance additionally necessitates that pediatricians appraise patients not alone for concrete but additionally affecting comorbidities and abrogating exposures associated with obesity, including bullying, low self-esteem, poor academy performance, depression, and anxiety.88–90 These are generally disregarded but can be signs a adolescent is experiencing weight-based bullying.
Creating a advantageous ambiance in which patients alive is analytical to finer abode and anticipate obesity. As allotment of these efforts, it is important to advance an ambiance that supports and empowers boyhood and families to be advantageous rather than reinforcing civic abashment or stigma directed adjoin those with obesity. Thus, pediatricians can be important advocates to abate weight stigma in assorted settings.
Schools. Pediatricians can assignment with schools to ensure antibullying behavior board protections for acceptance who are afraid about their weight. Given that weight-based blowing is generally absent in academy policies, advancement efforts by bloom affliction professionals could comedy an important role in abbreviation such bullying.
Youth-Targeted Media. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric bloom affliction professionals apostle for a amenable and admiring assuming of individuals with blubber in the media. By speaking out (eg, opinions and commentaries, belletrist to editors, able presentations, or commenting on amusing media) adjoin stigmatizing depictions in the media, pediatric bloom affliction professionals can advice access the acquaintance of weight stigma that can be decidedly damaging to accouchement and can reinforce broader civic stigma.
Provider Training. It is important for pediatricians and able entities to abide to apostle for the admittance of training to abode weight stigma in medical academy and abode curricula and through advancing continuing medical apprenticeship programs for practicing physicians; and
Parents. It is important for pediatricians and pediatric bloom affliction professionals to assignment to empower families and patients to administer and abode weight stigma in schools, communities, and their homes. Pediatricians can animate parents of patients to actively analyze with their children’s agents and academy authoritative agents to ensure that affairs are in abode to abode weight-based abuse in their institutions. Parents should additionally be asked to accede abeyant weight stigma at home, of which accompany and ancestors associates can be sources. Finally, because the ante of blubber are college in communities that are socioeconomically challenged and in communities of color, added stigma attributable to race, socioeconomics, and could added admixture the weight stigma accomplished by some individuals, families, and communities.91
Obesity is a arduous ache to treat. Abounding factors are at play, and abounding of these factors are difficult to finer abode during a abbreviate appointment encounter. The challenges bloom affliction professionals may face apropos blubber can affect interactions with patients and accidentally acquaint stigma, blame, or acumen aback attempting to access accommodating action for change. Unfortunately, affirmation shows these approaches acceptable blemish rather than advance bloom behaviors and weight outcomes. In addition, the affecting ache accomplished by patients who feel stigmatized can abate the likelihood of abiding for approaching bloom affliction visits.
Supportive bloom care, community, and educational environments can be sources of backbone for patients; however, at present, abounding of these environments accord to rather than actual and abode damaging weight stigma. Thus, pediatric bloom affliction professionals can comedy an important role in efforts to abode the accusation of bodies with blubber and access the acquaintance that stigmatizing blubber does not abate blubber or advance benign behaviors. By analytical their own weight biases, clay acute advice and behavior to accouchement and families with obesity, and demography accomplish to abode weight stigma with their staff, in their dispensary environments, and in the broader communities, pediatric bloom affliction professionals can accomplish important accouterment in the ability of affliction for accouchement with obesity. With these concerted efforts to abate weight stigma, interventions can added finer advice and empower patients to advance their weight-related health.
A aboriginal footfall in acclamation weight stigma is to become acquainted of one’s own abeyant attitudes and assumptions about anatomy weight. The University of Connecticut’s Rudd Center for Food Action and Blubber has several evidence-based assets on weight stigma to advice bloom affliction professionals accession self-awareness of claimed attitudes about obesity, apprentice how weight stigma can affect accommodating care, and booty actionable accomplish for personal, clinical, and association change. Assets board educational videos and a free, online continuing medical apprenticeship advance (http://ruddcentercme.org).
The American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Advantageous Boyhood Weight developed the chargeless “ChangeTalk: Boyhood Obesity” online ability (https://go.kognito.com/changetalk) for providers to apprentice and convenance motivational interviewing abilities with alternate avatars and analytic encounters with a accommodating and ancestor challenged by obesity.
When assessing for a acute analytic environment, ask the afterward types of questions to advice analyze abeyant aspects of the analytic appointment ambiance in which accomplish can be taken to abode weight stigma. Are the chairs in the cat-and-mouse allowance able to abutment the weight of a accommodating or ancestor of aerial anatomy weight? Do the chairs accept arm rests that ability anticipate a above ancestor or accommodating from actuality able to calmly sit down? Are accessible annual abstracts for patients admiring of advantageous affairs changes, or do they aback advance ailing anatomy images and fad diets? Aback a accommodating is brought aback to the dispensary room, is the calibration in a clandestine area, and can it accurately counterbalance a above patient? Are there claret burden cuffs that will board and accommodate an authentic annual on a above arm? Are there gowns that will acquiesce above patients to feel adequate and not ever apparent aback they change?
The Blubber Action Coalition, The Blubber Society, and the Rudd Center for Food Action and Blubber appear guidelines for the assuming of individuals with blubber in the media (http://www.obesityaction.org/wp-content/uploads/Guidelines-for-Media-Portrayals-of-Individuals-Affected-by-Obesity-2016.pdf).92 These guidelines board the afterward sections: (1) Respect Diversity and Abstain Stereotypes; (2) Adapted Accent and Terminology; (3) Counterbalanced and Authentic Coverage of Obesity; and (4) Adapted Pictures and Images of Individuals Affected by Obesity. Afterward guidelines like these in bloom advice about blubber can advice ensure that belletrist about blubber are admiring and admiring of bodies with blubber rather than accidental to civic stigma.
For advantageous assets to abutment parents apropos weight-based blowing at school, appointment the University of Connecticut’s Rudd Center for Food Action and Obesity’s assets on weight-based blowing (http://www.ruddrootsparents.org/weight-bias-and-bullying).
Stephen J. Pont, MD, MPH, FAAP
Rebecca Puhl, PhD, FTOS
Stephen R. Cook, MD, MPH, FAAP, FTOS
Wendelin Slusser, MD, MS, FAAP
Christopher F. Bolling, MD, FAAP, Chairperson
Sarah Armstrong, MD, FAAP
Natalie Digate Muth, MD, MPH, RD, FAAP
John Rausch, MD, MPH, FAAP
Victoria Rogers, MD, FAAP
Robert P. Schwartz, MD, FAAP
Alyson B. Goodman, MD, MPH – Centers for Ache Ascendancy and Prevention
Marc Michalsky, MD, FACS, FAAP
Stephanie Walsh, MD, FAAP
Penny Gordon-Larsen, PhD, FTOS, President
Allen S. Levine, PhD, FTOS, President-Elect
Caroline Apovian, MD, FTOS, Vice President
Martin Binks, PhD, FTOS, Secretary and Treasurer
Nikhil V. Dhurandhar, PhD, FTOS, Immediate-Past President
Stephen R. Cook, MD, MPH, FAAP, FTOS, Chair
Youfa Wang, MD, PhD, MS, FTOS, Chair-Elect
Aaron S. Kelly, PhD, FTOS, Secretary and Treasurer
Simone French, PhD, FTOS, Accomplished Chair
This certificate is copyrighted and is acreage of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors accept filed battle of absorption statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts accept been bound through a action accustomed by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accustomed any bartering captivation in the development of the agreeable of this publication.
Policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics annual from ability and assets of liaisons and centralized (AAP) and alien reviewers. However, action statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics may not reflect the angle of the liaisons or the organizations or government agencies that they represent.
The advice in this annual does not announce an absolute advance of assay or serve as a accustomed of medical care. Variations, demography into annual alone circumstances, may be appropriate.
All action statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years afterwards advertisement unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or afore that time.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors accept adumbrated they accept no banking relationships accordant to this commodity to disclose.
FUNDING: No alien funding.
POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors accept adumbrated they accept no abeyant conflicts of absorption to disclose.
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