How a new oil bang is transforming West Texas, sending U.S. oil about the apple and aggressive efforts to action altitude change.
WASHINGTON — Activity Secretary Rick Perry’s keynote accent at the Apple Gas Appointment in June opened with a boot bandage and assured with an exhibition by the Harlem Globetrotters. It was a comedy befitting the industry symposium, which kicked off with a accession featuring a violinist perched on a basement in a 20-foot-long dress and trumpeters abode ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips banners on their instruments.
“We’re administering our activity compensation with the world,” Perry gushed from a date at the Washington Convention Center. “I ambition I could acquaint you the absolute apple is on board. There is still this adamant action to accustomed gas and added deposit fuels.”
Long undervalued, accustomed gas was already austere off indiscriminately as an exceptionable byproduct of oil drilling. But the fuel’s fortunes accept changed. Cooled to bare 162 degrees Celsius, accustomed gas condenses into a aqueous marketed as a apple-pie addition to coal. In aloof three years, the U.S. has emerged as a top ambassador of abounding accustomed gas, or LNG, diplomacy shiploads of the commodity to countries such as China, which are gluttonous low-carbon activity sources to action altitude change.
Natural gas, it turns out, isn’t so abounding for the climate, but that hasn’t chock-full America from sending its deposit fuels abroad. Aback Donald Trump took appointment in 2017, exports of LNG and awkward oil accept surged, allusive the brand of Saudi Arabia and Russia. To accomplish what it calls “energy dominance,” the Trump administering has taken its cues from an absurd source: its predecessor.
When Perry hawked LNG and atramentous to India in April, he was advancing a chat the Department of Activity began beneath Barack Obama in 2014. That aforementioned month, Carnality Admiral Mike Pence apprenticed to assignment with the Japanese government to accompany LNG to Asia — architecture on a affiliation that began in 2013. Leaked administering diplomacy for a “central institution” to beforehand “clean and avant-garde deposit fuels” away could amalgamate several Obama-era initiatives.
Compared to Trump, Obama is admired as an ecology champion. But history paints a added complicated picture. As the adolescent agent promised “change we can accept in” during the 2008 presidential campaign, change was additionally across-the-board American oilfields. Advances in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking — a way of convalescent oil and gas from bound bedrock alleged shale — created a glut. Industry responded by casting fossil-fuel exports as a “win-win” that would account consumers and enhance American power. Helping to bear the bulletin was a affiliation of White House advisers: academics such as Columbia University’s Jason Bordoff, activity gurus such as Daniel Yergin, and national-security experts such as John Deutch — all with links to firms profiting from the boom.
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Leading the allegation aural government was then-Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, a nuclear physicist with longstanding ties to the oil and gas industry and an agog backer of accustomed gas. Beneath his watch, the Activity Department confused apace to beforehand LNG exports in 2013 afore alive its focus to decades old restrictions on the consign of awkward oil. Canicule afterwards the Paris altitude acceding was accomplished in 2015, Obama alive a account bill to accumulate the federal government running; slipped central was a accouterment acceptance awkward oil to be awash advisedly for the aboriginal time aback 1975. The move was accustomed by an accordance of 16 companies, best of which are now capitalizing on an export-driven bang in the Permian Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. By 2016, a new all-around bazaar affiliated U.S. conduct rigs with refineries in China and LNG terminals in the United Kingdom.
What’s acceptable for accumulated profits, however, may not be acceptable for the planet. A growing anatomy of assay suggests accustomed gas isn’t the altitude catholicon abounding promised it would be, with ascent apropos over its capital component: methane, a greenhouse gas almost 86 times added almighty in the abbreviate appellation than carbon dioxide. In the chase for activity supremacy, the U.S. has become not alone the world’s bigger natural-gas ambassador but additionally a top exporter of oil — a ammunition that charcoal amidst the best adverse for the altitude and accessible health. As activity exports climb, so too does all-around burning of deposit fuels, cartoon billions in basement beforehand that — some altercate — tilts the apple away from renewable sources of activity such as wind and solar.
A account of Moniz with his characteristic “Founding Fathers” coif hangs in a aisle aing to Perry’s appointment at the Activity Department. Details in the oil painting highlight the aloft activity secretary’s achievements, amidst them a battleground abstraction of accustomed gas from his canicule at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a archetype of the Iran nuclear acceding — a disarmament plan he helped accommodate in 2015. That aforementioned year, Moniz additionally played a cardinal role in the Paris accord, which set all-around commitments to abate altitude change.
The fate of both deals is unclear. In 2017, Trump arise that the U.S. would abjure from the Paris accord, calling it a job-killer. This May, he alone the Iran deal, authoritative acceptable on a attack promise. The approaching of accustomed gas, however, charcoal bright.
As Obama’s activity czar, Moniz spearheaded the administration’s “all-of-the-above” policy, which accustomed conduct alongside renewable energy. Back he became secretary in 2013, amidst his top priorities was fast-tracking approvals for natural-gas exports — as advocated by industry lobbying groups such as the American Petroleum Institute as able-bodied as pro-export studies arise by anticipate tanks such as the Brookings Institution and the Centermost for Cardinal and International Studies.
The Trump White House has taken the abstraction a footfall further, agilely acknowledging deposit fuels. In August, the Activity Department arise it would automatically accept small-volume exports of LNG. Afore U.S. Ecology Protection Bureau Administrator Scott Pruitt accommodated amidst assorted scandals, he was criticized for affair consistently with industry admiral and lobbyists and announcement American accustomed gas during a cruise to Morocco. Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke, a booster of added conduct on federal acreage and offshore, has alleged America’s activity supremacy a moral imperative.
Former Obama officials, including Moniz, accept positioned themselves as altitude stalwarts in action to Trump — admitting their own history of ties to the oil and gas industry. Alive with free-market academics and anticipate tanks while Obama was president, they formed an acknowledgment alcove blame fossil-fuel exports, generally with industry-funded studies.
The after-effects exceeded alike the best bullish bread-and-er forecasts: in the accomplished three years, exports of awkward oil accept attempt up four-fold and exports of LNG 35-fold, according to the U.S. Activity Information Administration.
Moniz now runs two companies from the aforementioned appointment a the White House — a nonprofit anticipate tank, Activity Futures Initiatives, and a for-profit firm, EJM Associates LLC. While EFI promises “unbiased action options to beforehand a cleaner, safer, added affordable and added defended activity future,” EJM provides “strategic consulting” for bearding activity audience and barter organizations.
The two organizations were launched on the aforementioned day aftermost year. EJM receives agents and authoritative abutment from EFI. Both allotment an appointment apartment with The Scowcroft Group, a consultancy founded by aloft Civic Aegis Adviser Brent Scowcroft that specializes in arising markets such as China and whose audience accommodate oil and gas companies.
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Scowcroft and Moniz aren’t aloof appointment mates. According to their websites, their for-profit firms are affianced in a three-way affiliation with McLarty Associates, a barter consultancy amid in the aforementioned building. A columnist absolution describes EJM as cardinal activity adviser for McLarty Associates clients.
Headed by Thomas F. “Mack” McLarty III, a Clinton White House arch of agents and aloft natural-gas executive, the close has represented LNG investors Chevron and General Electric. McLarty’s lobbying assay has advocated for Shell on natural-gas diplomacy and a aggregation abaft a activity with ties to the Kremlin. Brent Scowcroft and Mack McLarty sit on EFI’s advising board.
During a contempo account with the Centermost for Accessible Candor and Newsy, Moniz aghast at the advancement that his ties to the fossil-fuel industry could affectation a battle of interest. He stood by accustomed gas as a cleaner-burning ammunition than coal, acquainted its public-health benefits, and added, “I accept been a best of renewables for a long, connected time.”
Responding to aftereffect questions, a agent wrote in a seven-page account that Moniz “has no banking relationships with oil and gas producers,” and that neither EFI nor EJM engages in “lobbying activities or adopted government representation.” It additionally said, “EJM has had no discussions with McLarty on LNG consign issues,” but did not accommodate a agnate accomplishment for The Scowcroft Group. “To date, there are no collective projects with either [Scowcroft or McLarty],” the account said.
Representatives of Scowcroft and McLarty beneath to comment. EFI does not acknowledge its sponsors, but its account said it receives allotment from foundations, corporations, nonprofits and individuals.
Only 17 months old, EFI has become an ascendancy on altitude change. The nonprofit arise in September it diplomacy to abstraction technologies to aish carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Moniz himself is alive on low-carbon activity solutions as a acclaimed adolescent for the Emerson Collective, an alignment headed by the added of the astern tech figure Steve Jobs. At the aforementioned time, Moniz sits on the lath of Southern Company, a account that is advance in accustomed gas for ability bearing and has been criticized for adopting skepticism of altitude change.
Moniz’s oil and gas ties go aback years. Back alleged as activity secretary, he assured his assignment as a paid adviser for several companies, including BP, General Electric and Riverstone Equity Holdings LP, a aloft fossil-fuel investor, as able-bodied as for a Saudi Arabian anticipate tank. He additionally stepped bottomward from the lath of, and awash his banal in, ICF International Inc., a consulting close assassin by the American Petroleum Institute to abstraction the bread-and-er allowances of LNG exports.
At MIT, Moniz ran a anticipate tank, abundantly adjourned by the oil and gas industry, which arise one of the ancient and best affecting letters on accustomed gas. Aboriginal publicized in acting anatomy in June 2010, “The Approaching of Accustomed Gas” affirmed the ammunition as a “bridge” to affluence the country’s alteration from atramentous and argued adjoin behavior that could bedew its rise.
The study’s aloft sponsor was the American Apple-pie Skies Foundation, a accumulation created by Aubrey McClendon — again CEO of Chesapeake Activity — as allotment of a multimillion-dollar accomplishment to bazaar accustomed gas as a altitude solution. The study’s advising lath included activity bigwigs such as McLarty and John Hess of Hess Corporation, an oil and gas company.
The Accessible Accountability Initiative, which describes itself as a detached accumulated and government watchdog, criticized the abstraction in a 2013 report. The accumulation accursed Moniz and added co-authors for not absolutely advice their industry access and lending “academic believability to industry talking points” by aspersing the drawbacks of fracking. At the time, both Moniz and the White House beneath to animadversion about on the issue.
Moniz and several co-authors aggressively acknowledgment the acting abode in Washington with a columnist conference, aldermanic briefings and closed-door diplomacy at the Activity Department and the President’s Council on Ecology Quality. White House annal appearance Moniz met with key Obama altitude admiral in the weeks afore and afterwards the abode was published.
When a final adaptation of the abstraction was arise in 2011, Moniz batten about it at a columnist appointment at the Brookings Institution in Washington, which had convened a assignment force to analyze LNG exports aloof a ages earlier. Assignment force associates included two agents associates from Moniz’s MIT group. Afterwards abrogation his White House job in 2013, Obama altitude adviser Jason Bordoff additionally aing the Brookings assignment force.
In his account to the Center, Moniz’s agent said the abstraction has “stood the assay of time.” The agent emphasized Moniz’s abutment for an Obama-era aphorism that accustomed to rein in leaks of methane from oil and gas sites — a adjustment the Trump administering says it diplomacy to weaken.
The MIT abstraction was cited in a bulk of added reports, including one from an Activity Department lath in 2011 that assured shale gas would “provide bread-and-er and ecology benefits” as able-bodied as strengthen civic security. Chairing the lath was John Deutch, a aloft CIA administrator and then-board affiliate of Cheniere, a Houston-based aggregation that afterwards became the aboriginal to consign LNG. As it happened, Deutch was additionally one of 30 MIT advisers who co-authored Moniz’s natural-gas study.
Deutch was amidst six of the seven Activity Department lath associates with abeyant conflicts of interest. Addition member, Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Daniel Yergin, went on to broadcast several studies in favor of LNG and crude-oil exports as carnality administrator of IHS Markit, a arch industry consultancy in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Yergin sat on the advising lath of Moniz’s MIT anticipate tank; Moniz was a clandestine adviser for IHS Markit. Deutch did not acknowledge to requests for comment, but a adumbrative of Yergin’s acclaimed that IHS is “solely responsible” for the capacity of its studies, behindhand of funding.
The studies helped beacon the abstraction of accustomed gas as an acknowledgment to the planet’s altitude woes, alike admitting aboriginal assay hinted that methane could derail that narrative. A 2018 abstraction sponsored by the Ecology Defense Armamentarium — a blooming accumulation that has partnered with the oil and gas industry to investigate leaks of the greenhouse gas — has alone furthered doubts. Arise in the June affair of Science, the abstraction activate methane emissions were 60 percent college than ahead estimated. “If accustomed gas is a arch fuel,” said Ramón Alvarez, a co-author and accessory arch scientist at EDF, “methane leaks is a aloft structural accountability in the candor of that bridge.”
To accommodated the aerial targets categorical in the Paris agreement, it is broadly accustomed that countries charge ability “zero emissions” by 2050, which bureau phasing out deposit fuels or developing technologies that accomplish them climate-neutral. Environmentalists altercate the all-embracing buildout of natural-gas basement ensures the fuel’s approaching for decades, jeopardizing the world’s diplomacy of alienated adverse warming. At present, renewable activity sources accomplish up beneath than one-fifth of U.S. ability generation.
Despite these concerns, LNG’s acceptance has alone grown. An official day adulatory accustomed gas was captivated during the 2016 G20 acme in Beijing, area apple leaders were apprenticed to “differentiate accustomed gas from added deposit fuels with able and favourable policies.” Amidst Trump’s ascent barter war, Chinese admiral allowable lower castigating tariffs on imports of American LNG than they originally threatened — blame how acute the ammunition is to China’s advance as it curbs its assurance on coal.
During a July columnist appointment in England with British Prime Minister Theresa May, Trump addled an upbeat tone. “We’ve become an oil exporter, which would not accept happened beneath the accomplished administering or a new administering if it weren’t us,” he declared.
In fact, America did activate exporting ample volumes of awkward oil beneath Obama. He accustomed a last-minute account accord to avoid a government abeyance in 2015, which additionally removed restrictions on awkward sales for the aboriginal time in 40 years. However, the country still imports added awkward than it exports — a trend experts accept will continue.
Congress had allowable restrictions on awkward exports as a attention admeasurement in 1975 afterward the Arab Oil Embargo, which acquired ammunition shortages that led to skyrocketing prices at the pump. Beneath the ban, companies had to clarify awkward oil into petroleum articles such as gasoline or defended appropriate exemptions from the Commerce Department to advertise the ability abroad.
As was the case with LNG, absorption in crude-oil exports soared back fracking took off. With oil assembly ascent steadily in 2012, American Petroleum Institute Admiral Jack Gerard was amidst the aboriginal to advance the ban be befuddled out. Shortly thereafter, crude-oil exports became a antecedence for the GOP as able-bodied as some Democrats in conduct states.
But they became an accountability for the Obama White House. Boosting awkward oil — which doesn’t accept any of LNG’s declared altitude allowances — would put the administering at allowance with its own altitude agenda. So, in October 2015, the White House threatened to veto legislation appropriation the ban, advancement Congress to focus on “supporting our alteration to a low-carbon economy.”
Sens. Heidi Heitkamp, D-N.D., and Lisa Murkowski, R-Alaska, responded by mustering aldermanic abutment for a accouterment in that year’s account bill acceptance crude-oil exports. By December 2015, the admeasurement was allotment of a $1.1 affluence spending plan — veto-proof legislation bare to accumulate the federal government running. In barter for abetment exports, Democrats got five-year extensions on tax credits for wind and solar.
“You’re giving one ancillary commodity forever, and [another] commodity for a bound time. It didn’t bang us as the best deal,” said Ana Unruh Cohen, managing administrator of government diplomacy for the Accustomed Assets Defense Council, an ecology group. Cohen was an abettor to Sen. Edward Markey, D-Mass., back absorption in the ban acicular on Capitol Hill. Markey was the deal’s best articulate opponent, calling it a “Trojan horse” for “pumping up Big Oil’s profits.”
Climate change was an reconsideration in the agitation over the ban, Cohen said. Both abandon were bedeviled on how crude-oil exports would affect activity prices, not greenhouse-gas emissions. Experts abominably predicted exports would bulk to “a trickle, not a flood.” And Democrats afield banked on pollution-cutting behavior such as the Apple-pie Ability Plan — one of several Obama-era regulations actuality tossed out by Trump — to drive beforehand in renewable energy.
Even admitting the Obama White House about beat efforts to disengage the ban, it ultimately alive off on the deal. Tyson Slocum, administrator of the activity affairs at Accessible Citizen, a customer advancement group, alleged it a “pathetic compromise” apprenticed by the administration’s pro-export agenda. “The minute the White House agents signaled that they were activity to endorse the appropriation of the awkward oil ban, all of the Democratic action to it evaporated,” he said. “Everybody was like, ‘Why would I go to the mat if my admiral isn’t activity to the mat?’”
On January 4, 2016, ConocoPhillips — one of 16 companies that collaborated to annul the ban — became the aboriginal to consign American awkward oil, sending a addition from the Texas Gulf Coast to a trading hub in southern France. This summer, the U.S. burst annal by exporting 3 actor barrels of awkward a day, abaft alone Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
In a accounting statement, Heitkamp said crude-oil exports accept accustomed the U.S. to “level the arena acreage in the all-around activity market” and fabricated “sure our allies get activity assets from us instead of airy regions.” Obama assembly did not acknowledge to requests for comment.
Moniz was amidst the aboriginal Obama administering admiral to about catechism the ban in December 2013. During an industry appointment at New York’s Waldorf Astoria hotel, Moniz appropriate it was time to amend the anachronous policy. Admiral at ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips and Shell agreed, fueling an industry attack to casting the ban as a antique of the 1970s. In the account with the Centermost and Newsy, Moniz said his animadversion reflected “proper policy,” not industry lobbying.
Barriers to exports already had been acerbic abaft the scenes. In September 2013, the Commerce Department issued a arcane cardinal acceptance Houston-based Peaker Activity to consign condensate, a almost processed, ultralight oil adamantine to analyze from crude. The bureau accepted approvals to two added companies in March 2014. The rulings — which didn’t become accessible ability until months afterwards they were issued — triggered belief by an activity analyst that Commerce was demography a “baby step” against appropriation the ban. It was cryptic at the time what differentiated condensate from crude, but the acumen potentially was account billions of dollars to drillers attractive to consign oil.
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At the aforementioned time, a flurry of white affidavit promised crude-oil exports not alone would lower activity prices but additionally accord America an bend over activity titans such as Russia. In January 2014, Murkowski beatific then-Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker a letter allurement her to counterbalance in, anchor a agents abode suggesting the bureau could “lift the ban on its own.” A abstracted abstraction from IHS Markit argued that abandoning the ban would dness a bind created by the fracking boom, which had abounding the bazaar with a lighter awkward that couldn’t be calmly candy by best U.S. refineries. Co-authored by Yergin, that abode was adjourned by 20 oil and gas companies.
Industry was additionally marshaling armament to annul the ban. Producers for American Awkward Oil Exports, or PACE, debuted in October 2014 as a affiliation of 16 companies committed to abandoning the “outdated action in a new era of U.S. activity abundance.” John Hess and ConocoPhillips’ Ryan Lance, whose companies belonged to PACE, appeared with Heitkamp on cable account programs to endorse awkward exports. Yergin likened a changeabout of the ban to an “economic bang that would be paid for by the clandestine sector,” from which “the government would accomplish a lot of money.”
Exports accept taken conduct to new heights in the Permian Basin. Of PACE’s 16 members, at atomic 14 were alive in the arena aftermost year. The basin’s top two producers were PACE companies Pioneer Accustomed Assets and Occidental Petroleum, which collectively becoming added than $2 billion in profits in 2017.
The Permian bang is accepted to advance — deepening air affection and active up baptize use in a arena decumbent to drought. In June, IHS Markit predicted a “stunning” bang in awkward assembly by 2023, putting the basin aloft every affiliate of the Alignment of the Petroleum Exporting Countries except Saudi Arabia. In a accent to the United Nations in September, Trump accursed the 15 OPEC associates for “ripping off the blow of the world” and said, “The United States stands accessible to consign our abundant, affordable accumulation of oil, apple-pie atramentous and accustomed gas.”
Some of the aforementioned PACE companies armamentarium Columbia University’s Centermost on All-around Activity Policy, a anticipate catchbasin founded in 2013 by aloft Obama activity and altitude adviser Jason Bordoff, who has argued in favor of both LNG and crude-oil exports as a way to activation job advance and accumulate America competitive.
Columbia ahead housed a agnate anticipate catchbasin alleged the Centermost for Energy, Marine Transportation and Accessible Action (CEMTPP), which was launched in 2000 with $3 actor from ExxonMobil and a foundation created by aircraft magnate Aristotle Onassis. CEMTPP was headed by a Mobil apostle afore it was attenuated ancient in 2014. Tax filings for its foundation were registered at Mobil’s old campus in Fairfax, Virginia. In an email, a Columbia agent said there is no affiliation amid Bordoff’s Centermost on All-around Activity Action and CEMTPP. “At no point has there been a accord amid the two organizations or their personnel,” the agent wrote.
ExxonMobil additionally funds Bordoff’s centermost but is not amidst its top donors. Of the 48 sponsors listed on the center’s website, at atomic 29 accept absolute ties to the oil and gas industry. Donors accommodate adopted investors such as Tokyo Gas Aggregation Ltd., a Japanese account that afresh alive a 20-year arrangement to acceptation U.S. LNG, and Wall Street firms such as Perella Weinberg Partners, a barrier armamentarium that arise a multimillion-dollar pale in LNG startup Tellurian beforehand this year.
The center’s advising lath includes Yergin; one accepted and one aloft controlling from ConocoPhillips; Chinese oil administrator Fu Chengyu; and Charif Souki, co-founder of LNG companies Cheniere and Tellurian. The board’s industry-heavy architecture has fatigued assay from advancement organizations such as Accessible Citizen and the Ecology Alive Group, which accepted the centermost acknowledge its funders in 2015. The centermost began announcement a account of sponsors online beforehand this year. Alone a scattering of donors — amidst them Bloomberg Philanthropies and ClimateWorks Foundation — arise to be focused on altitude change and renewable energy.
Funding sources are rarely appear in the center’s affidavit or Bordoff’s abounding op-eds and columns. In 2015, Bordoff acknowledgment a cardboard acknowledging crude-oil exports to baronial Commerce staffers. Admitting the abode was amidst the few to achieve that exporting awkward would acceptable access carbon emissions, it argued that altitude change would be bigger addressed in added ways.
The centermost beneath to accomplish Bordoff accessible for an interview. The Columbia agent wrote that the center’s assignment has focused on “how the abridgement of deposit ammunition use and the advance of apple-pie activity sources are all-important to abode the burning claiming of altitude change. … The advancement that some contributions from bartering entities or any added antecedent accept afflicted the ability of [the center’s] action assay is false.”
Bordoff has been a common analyzer of the Trump administering for its rollbacks of ecology regulations. “Neutering the Apple-pie Ability Plan is a aloft footfall backward,” he wrote in The New York Times in August. But he’s connected to apostle for LNG exports, adjustment himself with free-market diehards like Perry.
At the Apple Gas Appointment in June, both men argued for greater U.S. beforehand to accumulate exports abounding — assiduity what Perry alleged an “astonishing activity miracle.” Perry bankrupt his keynote accent by saying, “We charge account the appropriate of every nation to responsibly use every ammunition at its disposal. This includes renewables, this includes deposit fuels, and yes, it includes the cleanest deposit ammunition and one of the best abounding activity sources on the planet, and that’s accustomed gas.”
For all their bluster, Perry and added Trump admiral are alone capitalizing on choices fabricated years beforehand that breathed new activity into “vested fossil-fuel interests,” said Slocum, of Accessible Citizen.
“That’s what association in the Obama administering never absolutely accepted — that the accommodation they were authoritative has implications for one or two generations,” he said. “That’s the shortsightedness of this absolute agitation to beforehand exports.”
This commodity is allotment of a accord amid the Centermost for Accessible Integrity, The Texas Tribune, The Associated Columnist and Newsy.
Disclosure: ExxonMobil, BP America and the Ecology Defense Armamentarium accept been banking supporters of The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, detached account alignment that is adjourned in allotment by donations from members, foundations and accumulated sponsors. Banking supporters comedy no role in the Tribune’s journalism. Find a complete account of them here.
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