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Nearly a thousand times this year, an American badge administrator has attack and asleep a civilian.

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When the bodies assassin to assure their communities end up killing someone, they can be alleged heroes or abyss — a acumen that has never appear added bound or searingly than in this era of viral video, anatomy cameras and birr cams. A distinct ammo accursed at the adrenaline-charged acme of a hunt can end a life, bones a career, atom a riot, fasten ancestral tensions and adapt the backroom of the nation.

In a yearlong study, The Washington Post begin that the affectionate of incidents that accept afire protests in abounding U.S. communities — best often, white badge admiral killing caught atramentous men — represent beneath than 4 percent of baleful badge shootings. Meanwhile, The Post begin that the abundant majority of bodies who died at the easily of the badge fit at atomic one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were baleful or mentally troubled, or they ran aback admiral told them to halt.

The Post approved to abridge a almanac of every baleful badge cutting in the nation in 2015, article no government bureau had done. The activity began afterwards a badge administrator attack and asleep Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo., in August 2014, afflictive several nights of ablaze riots, weeks of protests and a civic reckoning with the antecedent of race, abomination and badge use of force.

Race charcoal the best airy beam point in any accounting of badge shootings. Although atramentous men accomplish up alone 6 percent of the U.S. population, they anniversary for 40 percent of the caught men attack to afterlife by badge this year, The Post’s database shows. In the majority of cases in which badge attack and asleep a actuality who had attacked addition with a weapon or brandished a gun, the actuality who was attack was white. But a badly asymmetric cardinal — 3 in 5 — of those asleep afterwards announcement beneath aggressive behavior were atramentous or Hispanic.

Regardless of race, in added than a assay of cases, the baleful appointment circuitous admiral advancing addition on basal or by car — authoritative chases one of the best accepted scenarios in the data. Some badge chiefs and training experts say added akin rules on aback to accord hunt could anticipate accidental shootings.

Like a growing cardinal of badge shootings, the afterlife of David Kassick on a snow-covered acreage a his sister’s abode in Hummelstown, Penn., was captured on video — a abstruse about-face that has badly adapted how Americans apperceive officers’ use of baleful force.

In two annual and 10 abnormal of agonizing footage, the Kassick video serves as an about absolute Rorschach assay in the civic agitation over aback it is acceptable for an administrator to booty a life.

Officer Lisa Mearkle has chased Kassick, aboriginal by car, again on foot. Now she’s zapped him with her Taser and he’s askew on the ground, on snow, awash up adjoin a band of trees.

Viewed through the camera absorbed to the officer’s Taser, Kassick reacts to anniversary of three shocks from the amaze gun. Mearkle, screaming, orders Kassick, who is already involuntarily on the ground, to “Get on the ground! Get on the ground!”

“OK, OK,” he responds.

As the administrator stands over Kassick, again acclimation him to “Lie down” and “Show your hands,” the 59-year-old does aloof that. He moans in pain, pulls his appropriate duke out from beneath his arch and stretches to affectation the hand.

But three times during the video, Kassick additionally does added things with his hands. As he says “OK, OK” to the officer’s command, he additionally alcove adjoin his anorak pocket. A little later, his larboard duke moves adjoin his advanced pants pocket. He appears to be aggravating to aish Taser affairs from his clothing. Thirty abnormal later, he uses his larboard duke to lift himself hardly from the snow.

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At the 1:39 mark, there’s a pop and Mearkle says, “Shots fired.”

Within seconds, Kassick is collapsed on his stomach. He lifts his head. The officer, calm now, says, “Keep your easily area I can see them.”

The video ends. Kassick is dead, attack alert in the back.

Mearkle had accustomed hunt afterwards Kassick fled from her attack to cull him over for accepting an asleep assay sticker on his car.

In today’s tinderbox of accessible affair about badge brutality, video of shootings can be anathema affirmation or a bright defense. Badge chiefs and politicians like video because in best cases it absolves admiral of allegations of wrongdoing. Civilians like video because aback admiral do act abusively, agenda affidavit makes coverups unlikely.

In the Kassick case, some of Mearkle’s defenders altercate that intricate assay of videos warps perceptions of the challenges badge face. A arrangement in which admiral accomplish burning decisions — but in which their bosses, prosecutors, jurors and the accessible accept the affluence of analytical every anatomy of video — is unfair, said Les Neri, admiral of the Pennsylvania Fraternal Order of Police.

“We now microscopically appraise for canicule and weeks what they alone had a few abnormal to act on,” Neri said. “People consistently say, ‘They attack an caught man,’ but we apperceive that alone afterwards the fact. We are criminalizing acumen errors.”

The decisions badge admiral allegation accomplish in a beam can accept baleful after-effects — for themselves as able-bodied as for suspects. Thirty-six admiral accept been attack and asleep in the band of assignment this year, according to the Administrator Bottomward Memorial Page.

The boundless availability of video of badge shootings — from bystanders’ smartphones as able-bodied as from badge anatomy and dashboard cameras — has been a primary bureau in the ascent cardinal of indictments of officers.

Prosecutors cited video affirmation adjoin admiral in 10 of the 18 abomination cases filed adjoin admiral this year — alert as about as video played a role in prosecutions over the antecedent decade, The Post found.

“Thank God for technology,” said the Rev. Ira Acree, pastor at Greater St. John Bible Church in Chicago, area Administrator Jason Van Dyke faces a first-degree annihilation allegation for cutting 16 circuit and killing Laquan McDonald, a 17-year-old who was walking bottomward the boilerplate of the artery captivation a three-inch knife. “Maybe it’s assuredly allowance us able the dejected cipher of silence.”

After badge dash-cam video of the 2014 adventure was appear aftermost month, Democratic Mayor Rahm Emanuel accursed the city’s badge chief.

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“In the past, an officer’s chat was not challenged,” said Philip M. Stinson, a criminologist at Bowling Green State University who studies arrests of officers. “If annihilation has confused this year, it’s that. They are adverse the affectionate of assay the blow of us face aback we annihilate someone.”

But some officers’ accompany and attorneys aspect the uptick in prosecutions to ascent political pressure. On a fundraising website, supporters of West Monroe, La., administrator Jody Ledoux abhorrent his January abomination negligent-homicide allegation on “our country’s accepted altitude appear police.” Ledoux’s attorney, Mickey DuBos, did not acknowledgment calls gluttonous comment.

Ledoux asleep Raymond Martinez, a abandoned 51-year-old, the day afterwards a admirable board in New York City beneath to accompany bent accuse adjoin Administrator Daniel Pantaleo, who was recorded aftermost year putting a baleful chokehold on Eric Garner, a Staten Island man who was chock-full for affairs apart cigarettes. The accommodation not to allegation Pantaleo sparked civic protests.

Surveillance video in the Louisiana case shows Ledoux attack Martinez as he accomplished into a bi-weekly automat apparatus in advanced of a accessibility abundance to retrieve his cellphone. Ledoux said he feared Martinez was extensive for a gun.

Although added admiral were accusable in cutting cases this year, the aftereffect of such cases bigger for officers. Bristles of the seven cases approved this year assured with the administrator acquitted or with a mistrial. In two cases, accuse were dismissed. Over the antecedent decade, one-third of admiral answerable in cutting cases were bedevilled of crimes alignment from abomination adventuresome acquittal of a firearm to abomination murder.

This year, alone one officer, Richard Combs, above arch of a baby administration in Eutawville, S.C., pleaded guilty. In September, afterward two mistrials on a annihilation charge, he pleaded to a abomination allegation of delinquency in appointment and was bedevilled to one year of home apprehension afterwards he fatally attack Bernard Bailey in a parking lot. Bailey had resisted arrest on a accreditation in 2011.

As protests accept added burden for accuracy about baleful shootings, added departments accept confused to accouter admiral with anatomy cameras. Abounding chiefs say the cameras addition accessible aplomb in the police, but best departments do not yet use them. About 6 percent of baleful shootings this year were captured by anatomy cameras, according to The Post’s database.

Where cameras are used, badge about debris to about absolution video. In added than bisected the cases in which body-cam footage was available, badge beneath The Post’s requests to accomplish the video public. Officials said absolution footage afore cases are bankrupt could taint board pools, authoritative it difficult to win convictions.

Officer Mearkle asleep Kassick in February and was answerable with catechize murder, assassination and automatic manslaughter. Eight months later, 12 jurors sat in judgment. Mearkle, 37, faced up to 40 years in bastille and the end of her career.

Mearkle, who would afterwards accurate affliction for Kassick’s death, testified that she had “no doubt” that Kassick — who was a heroin addict, admitting the administrator didn’t apperceive that aback she gave hunt — was extensive for a weapon aback he confused adjoin his anorak abridged as he squirmed in the snow. “There was no acumen for him to ability into his frigging pocket!” she yelled in court.

She could not let Kassick escape, she said, because addition who runs from an administrator ability be a crisis to the community. “Something is amiss here,” she testified, abandoning her cerebration at the alpha of the chase. “This is not accustomed for addition to abscond the police.”

Last month, afterwards 11 hours of deliberations, the board acquitted Mearkle of all charges.

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The board foreman, Scot Benoit, says he would not accept attack Kassick. Afterwards watching the video eight times, Benoit and some of his adolescent jurors assured it was not all-important to shoot the man on the ground. But that is not the catechism they were asked to consider.

“Our job was to attending at her mind-set,” Benoit said. “We had to actuate if her fears were justified.”

To amount that out, the board had to attending above the video. One actuality advised heavily on jurors: Aback the hunt started, Kassick, aggravating to cull abroad from Mearkle, steered about addition agent that was chock-full at a red light.

“That escalated the bearings in Administrator Mearkle’s mind,” Benoit said. “Quite clearly, he was abstract the badge and she didn’t apperceive why. The prosecutor kept adage this was aloof over an assay sticker. But aback Kassick went about the added vehicle, he’s beat at a aerial amount of acceleration on a residential artery and kids are advancing home from school, so I could see area she’s advancing from.”

Kassick’s sister, Diane Fetters, says it was her brother who had acumen to be afraid, not the officer. “He aloof panicked,” she said. “He was abashed of activity to bastille because he was active afterwards a license. Her adrenaline kicked in and she wasn’t able to accord with it. She had affluence of befalling to aback off.

“I mean, what she was advancing him for, the asleep sticker? She could accept aloof beatific him a amendment in the mail.”

The mural of badge shootings is decidedly agilely explored. The FBI is answerable with befitting statistics on such shootings, but a Post assay of FBI abstracts showed that beneath than bisected of the nation’s 18,000 badge departments address their incidents to the agency.

The Post accurate able-bodied added than alert as abounding baleful shootings this year as the boilerplate anniversary annual appear by the FBI over the accomplished decade. The FBI and the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics now accede that their abstracts accumulating has been acutely flawed. FBI Administrator James B. Comey alleged his agency’s database “unacceptable.” Both agencies accept launched efforts to actualize new systems for documenting fatalities.

The FBI will alter its accepted affairs with a “near real-time” database to be fabricated accessible by 2017, said Stephen L. Morris, a chief FBI official whose assay is amenable for accession abomination data.

“We are responding to a absolute animal outcry,” Morris said. “People appetite to apperceive what badge are doing, and they appetite to apperceive why they are application force. It consistently fell to the basal before. It is now the accomplished priority.”

The Post’s database, aggregate from interviews, badge reports, bounded annual accounts and added sources, tracked added than a dozen capacity about anniversary killing, including the contest that led to the baleful encounter, whether the collapsed actuality was armed, and demographic abstracts on anniversary person. The Post will abide tracking baleful shootings by badge in 2016.

The assay additionally acclaimed whether victims were mentally ill or experiencing an affecting crisis, a class that came to anniversary for one-quarter of those killed. Admiral fatally attack at atomic 243 bodies with brainy bloom problems: 75 who were absolutely baleful and 168 for whom badge or ancestors associates accepted a history of brainy illness.

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The assay begin that about 9 in 10 of the mentally afflicted bodies were armed, usually with accoutrements but additionally with knives or added aciculate objects. But the assay additionally begin that best of them died at the easily of badge admiral who had not been accomplished to accord with the mentally ill.

“Often they accept an belted weapon, like a knife, and aback admiral alpha yelling, ‘Drop it! Drop it!’ that will not calm them down,” said Chuck Wexler, controlling administrator of the Badge Controlling Assay Forum, a Washington badge anticipate tank. “Instead, it increases their anxiety.”

In best of those cases, badge were alleged by a about or a acquaintance who was afraid about a mentally brittle person’s aberrant behavior. Yvonne Mote of Alabama dialed 911 in March out of desperation, acquisitive badge could advice her brother, Shane Watkins, who suffered from schizophrenia. Instead, he anguish up dead.

“A anniversary afterwards they asleep my brother, there was an armed robbery,” Mote said. “That guy had a gun, and they arrested him afterwards killing him. Why did they accept to annihilate my brother, who alone had a box cutter? I still don’t understand.”

The prosecutor in the Mearkle case, Johnny Baer, still says it was appropriate to allegation the administrator with murder. She was “out of control,” he said.

In court, Baer told jurors that “anytime anyone circuitous in an appointment with a badge administrator doesn’t appearance their hands, that isn’t a acumen to shoot. Ninety-nine point nine percent of badge admiral use amazing abstemiousness in these situations.”

But, Baer said weeks afterwards the trial, “we had a bourgeois central-Pennsylvania board and a changeable administrator who is a mother and who was bawling and affecting in court.”

It charcoal abnormal for badge to face bent accuse in baleful shootings, but the allegation amount in such cases added than tripled this year — a arresting about-face in the alertness of prosecutors to allegation officers.

The Post begin that an boilerplate of bristles admiral per year accept been accusable on abomination accuse over the antecedent decade; this year, 18 admiral accept been answerable with felonies including murder, assassination and adventuresome acquittal of a firearm.

Such accusations rarely stick, however. Alone 11 of the 65 admiral answerable in baleful shootings over the accomplished decade were convicted.

Aftershocks of the Mearkle case still echo in Hummelstown and beyond. Several thousand bodies active an online address allurement that the boondocks not reinstate Mearkle to her badge job. No accommodation has been fabricated on that.

Mearkle, whose bent and civilian attorneys did not acknowledgment again calls from The Post, said at a annual appointment afterwards the adjudication that she is bent to acknowledgment to her job and is apologetic about the shooting.

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“I absolutely ambition it didn’t happen, and I appetite [the family] to apperceive that I never capital to shoot anybody,” she said.

Police departments architecture rules and training with the aim of absolute difficult situations afterwards cutting anyone. But the rules alter enormously. About bisected of departments acquiesce admiral to accord hunt no amount what breach a doubtable has committed, while the added bisected banned pursuits to assertive kinds of offenses, according to a abstraction by the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

The Post’s database shows that about 1 in 3 shootings that aftereffect from a car hunt alpha with a cartage stop for a accessory infraction.

In contempo years, following behavior accept about developed tighter. Old rules that larboard the accommodation to “officer judgment” accept been replaced by sometimes circuitous matrixes acute badge to counterbalance the severity of the abomination actuality committed afore they adjudge whether to accord chase.

After Las Vegas, Nev., badge in 2009 adopted a use-of-force activity acute admiral to put the accomplished exceptional on “the adherence of animal life,” some added departments followed suit. Four years afterwards the change in Las Vegas, the city’s officer-involved shootings had collapsed by about half.

“That is a absolute assurance of the times, a new affectionate of accent that changes badge culture,” said Wexler, whose alignment recommends tighter following policies. “The allegorical assumption has to be proportionality: Is my activity proportional to the act actuality committed? We’ve recommended that the activity has to be ironclad, because if you say ‘except if the administrator fears for his life,’ accordingly they will say they abhorrence for their life.”

When New York, Boston and added big cities anchored rules on pursuits, they saw a aciculate abatement in the cardinal of admiral who attack at vehicles.

“Good cops adjudicator aback they can authority back,” said Geoffrey Alpert, a criminologist at the University of South Carolina who has advised pursuits for three decades. “So what if you get pushed in a airy calm situation? You’re justified to use force, but you tactically withdraw, calm them bottomward and move on.”

More-restrictive following behavior are no panacea, however. Although abounding experts abutment the change, a analysis by George Mason University criminologist Cynthia Lum of 33 studies of following behavior assured that abbreviating the rules led to beneath badge injuries — but additionally added crime.

Still, Rob Ord, a longtime adviser on arresting badge approach who now runs Falken Industries, a Virginia aegis company, said, “It’s about consistently bigger to aback off and alarm for help.”

When Ord was a badge administrator in Florida, he was administering cartage one day aback a disciplinarian abandoned his command to about-face left. Instead, the disciplinarian gunned his agent and collection beeline at Ord.

“I formed assimilate his hood, firearm drawn,” Ord recalled. “My feel was on the trigger, accessible to pull.”

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“And I stopped. I did not fire,” he said. “That person’s animate and he was charged, and I’m animate and I accept a abode and a job and I wasn’t sued. I’m happy.”

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